“If I have seen a little further it is by standing on the shoulders of giants.”
The open access movement predates the Internet (to about the 1950's), and various models were proposed to increase access to academic research. Self-archiving (the act of depositing a free copy of an electronic document on the Internet in order to provide open access to it) has been common for computer scientists since at least the 1980s. In physics, it has become the norm and some sub-areas like high-energy physics have a 100% self-archiving rate. Interestingly, the two major physics publishers, American Physical Society and Institute of Physics Publishing have reported that the free archive has had no effect on journal subscriptions in physics; even though articles are freely available, usually before publication.
In 1997 when the US National Library of Medicine made Medline available freely in the form of PubMed, the usage of this database increased ten-fold.Read More